Cat’s Eye Apatite

Other Names: chatoyant stone (specific cut/coloration)
Origin of Name: Greek “apatao” meaning deception
Meaning of the Stone: Birthstone of Gemini Zodiac
Classification: semi-precious
Family: Phosphate Mineral
Region: USA, India, Brazil, Russia,Sri Lanka, Canada
Color: Green, yellow, blue-violet, transparent
Transparency: Transparent, translucent
Fracture: Conchoidal,uneven
Hardness (Gravity): 5(3.16-3.22)
Crystal System: hexagonal,Dipyramidal
Similar Minerals: Quartz,Feldspar,Calcite

1. Legend and History:

The name of this specific stone literally means deceit in greek, and is considered to have derived from the fact that as it is confused with precious beryl, or topaz, it tends to deceit those whom are not familiar of the stone.
Apatite is considered to be a crystal which may enhance desired results when dealing with attributes of other crystals, thus acting as a positive agent. Furthermore, apatite is believed to enhance one’s inner view, learning abilities and creativity, whilst at the same time increase self confidence, improve coordination, strengthen the muscles, and ease hypertension.

2. Origin in nature and use:

Apatite is chemically a group of phosphate minerals, hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, chlorapatite, and bromapatite, and is one of the few minerals which are produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. It is rather infrequently used as a gemstone in its basic form, however, transparent stones which have a clear color have been faceted or cabochon cut. Furthermore, different varieties of Apatite exist and these depend on certain variables of the stone, for instance, chatoyant stones are known as cat’s eye apatite, while transparent green gems are called asparagus stone; in addition, when crystals of rutile grow inside the crystal of apatite, in correct light the stone may display a cat’s eye effect.
Cat’s eye apatite is most commonly cut into cabochons, as only tall round cuts may exhibit the true beauty of the cat’s eye effect.

4. Interesting Facts:

In many instances apatite has been found to contain certain rare elements of the earth’s crust which can be used as ore.
Chatoyant stones, including cat’s eye apatite, can change in luster or color by orienting the colors in different sequences and levels through towards the light source.

5. Care and Storing:

Apatite should be cared for in the same manner as opal, as it is sensitive to high levels of heat and shocks, thus when cleaned lukewarm water and a soft cloth is best practice. Furthermore, as it is relatively soft, it is best kept away from hard crystal and jewelry which may damage it.

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Cassiterite

Other Names: Tin gemstone
Origin of Name: Greek kassiteros which means tin
Meaning of the Stone:
Classification: semi-precious
Family: oxide minerals
Region: Bolivia, Rwanda,Congo,Brazil,Mexico,USA,England(now exhausted)
Color: Black,dark brown,red-brown,red,yellow,gray,white
Transparency: transparent, opaque, depending on light
Fracture: subconchoidal
Hardness (Gravity): 6-7(6.98-7.1)
Crystal System: tetragonal,
Similar Minerals: fluorite,apatite,tourmaline

1. Legend and History:

Cassiterite got its name from the Greek language, literally meaning the ore of tin; however, the Romans used to call the British Isles cassiterides, although scholars believe that the most valid origin of the name derives from Greek, as the stone is also called tin gemstone.
Cassiterite is believed to keep negative thoughts out of its wearers mind, and also help him adapt in a community where he feels unwanted, thus lifting self-confidence. In addition it is said to control feelings of equality and integrity but also keep mental stability. In reference to healing properties, cassiterite is believed to help in weight loss, and prevent hormonal anomalies from occurring.

2. Origin in nature and use:

Cassiterite is an ore found in the form of tin, and one of the most important ones for that matter; It is primarily concentrated in alluvial surfaces. It’s crystals are generally short as they occur in pematites. The main color of the cassiterite ore is black and transparent, and this variety is which is mainly used in jewelry making; In ancient times however cassiterite was used not only for the purpose of jewelry making, but also in order to make utensils. It’s main geographical origin is Bolivia, Rwanda, Congo Brazil, Mexico, USA and England.

4. Interesting Facts:

Cassiterite mines in Congo have recently been shut down and deemed illegal due to the fact that many wars and acts of violence have occurred due to its abundance and sale price.

5. Care and Storing:

There are not many important facts in reference to care and storing for this specific gemstone, it is however recommended to keep in a presentation box or soft pouch, due to it’s hardness, or lack thereof, and also clean with a soft cloth and warm water.

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Carnelian

Other Names: cornelian,sadoine
Origin of Name: Latin, meaning the color of flesh
Meaning of the Stone: Birthstone of the zodiac Cancer
Classification: semi-precious
Family: Quartz-silica
Region: India, Saudi Arabia, Egypt,Brazil, USA,Russia,Germany,Romania
Color: dark red, orange red, brown-red
Transparency: translucent to opaque
Fracture: conchoidal,uneven
Hardness (Gravity): 6-7(2.50-2.70)
Crystal System: trigonal
Similar Minerals: sard,chalcedony

1. Legend and History:

Carnelian has been mined for more than 2000 years in order to produce colorful sealing products, jewelry, and decorative sculptures.The oldest mines of carnelian are found in India, Saudi Arabia and Egypt.
The name carnelian derives from the Latin word carne which means flesh, and resembles the color of the stone.
Archeological findings have also proven that carnelian was used even in Ancient Knossos, of Crete, where it was used to form decorative arts, and jewelry.
It is believed to protect it’s wearer from toothaches, and diseases of the mind, whilst also it is said to calm people and release anger while bringing happiness. In addition, carnelian ceases bleeding, lowers ones temperature, stimulates sex glands, and helps strengthen the heart.

2. Origin in nature and use:

Carnelian is found in various parts of the world, as it is a rather common gemstone; it is a translucent dark red to orange variety of chalcedony quartz, and it’s specific color is caused by impurities of iron oxide. It is a stone similar to sard, and often both names, sard and carnelian, are used interchangeably as there is no concrete definition in order to separate the two, but for the fact that sard is strongly darker and harder as a variety.

4. Interesting Facts:

Carnelian was used in Ancient Egypt, by the goddess Isis, in order to protect the dead while on their journey through the afterlife.

5. Care and Storing:

Carnelian needs not much elaborate care when in simple forms; it must however be kept in a dark storing box as it tends to fade with sunlight. In addition, carnelian gemstones which have inclusions need to be more thoroughly cleaned than those which are smooth, as dirt may be caught in the inclusions and damage the beautiful color of the stone.

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Calcite

Other Names: Calcspar, Iceland Spar
Origin of Name: Latin Calx, meaning Lime
Meaning of the Stone:
Classification: semi-precious
Family: Carbonate mineral
Region: USA,Italy,Germany,England,Brazil
Color: red,blue,yellow,green,white,colorless,orange
Transparency: Transparent,translucent
Fracture: Conchoidal
Hardness (Gravity): 3(2.71)
Crystal System: Trigonal,hexagonal and more
Similar Minerals: aragonite, vaterite

1. Legend and History

Calcite derives from the latin word Calx and the Greek word chalix, meaning Lime. Calcite is believed to increase ones memory capacity and enhance learning abilities, thus is considered unique for students; it is also said to increase prosperity and increase ones intuition. In addition, calcite has a double refraction effect, meaning that when light beams enter the crystal they are split into fast and slow beams which leave the crystal at different angles, thus allowing for a perfect double image to be created when you lay a calcite crystal over an image or writing.

2. Origin in nature and use:

Calcite is one of the most common minerals on earth and one of the softest also. It can be found practically in all geological settings as a primary igneous mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate; It is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, in particular limestone. Calcite limestone and marble is used in building, the production of cement, a flux in steel smelting, and for agricultural uses. Jewelry is also created with calcite, especially those stones which show a double refraction effect and glowing under fluorescent lighting.
In addition, while most crystals show one or few more crystal formations, calcite has been found to show over 300 crystal formations.

4. Interesting Facts:

Specimens of calcite which contain parts of manganese tend to glow in a variety of beautiful colors when put under fluorescent lighting, thus enhancing the stone’s beauty and physical attributes. Furthermore, Aragonite, when heated between 380 and 470 degrees Celsius will change into calcite.

5. Care and Storing:

Calcite must be kept away from anything acidic as it may dissolve the stone, thus it is best stored in a dark place away from any harming properties, and preferably in a presentation box. Although not a highly durable stone, jewelry is crafted out of calcite, but must be kept safe as it may break and scratch very easily. It is recommended to clean calcite with a soft polishing cloth, and use a small amount of olive oil in order to enhance its shine, and give it a beautiful lustrous look.

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Boulder Opal

Other Names:
Origin of Name: Sanskrit word “upala”, or Greek word opillos, meaning “seeing”
Meaning of the Stone: October Birthstone
Classification: Precious
Family: Mineraloid, Quartz
Region: boulder opal is found only in Australia
Color: colorless, pink,black, green, blue, red,yellow, brown,orange, purple
Transparency: opaque, transparent
Fracture: Conchoidal to uneven
Hardness (Gravity): 5.5-6(2.15)
Crystal System: Amorphous
Similar Minerals: limonite,sandstone,rhyolite

1. Legend and History:

Opal was considered to be a stone of good luck in ancient times due to the fact that it was believed to posses all the virtues of each gem whose color shows in the various colorations of one opal stone.After the novel of Sir Walter Scott, The Maiden of the Mist, however, in 1829, opal lost it’s “good luck” attribute and was more closely associated to bad luck due to the events in the novel, more specifically the fact that once holy water was poured on the stone, it became colorless and it’s wearer dies shortly after.
Opal however is considered to empower the will of life, and heal parkinson’s disease, infections, fevers, and also strengthen ones memory, but also cleanse the blood and kidneys. In addition, opal is considered to be good for women in labour, as it is said to relief a woman prior to giving birth.

2. Origin in nature and use:

Boulder Opal is found only in Australia where it forms within ironstone boulders, and it is this fact which makes the stone so durable. In addition, as there is a very low water content within the boulder opal, it almost never shows cracks as time passes. When boulder opals are excavated it is necessary, due to the fact that the veins of color are so thin, to keep a back lining of ironstone on the opal; this may look as a doublet but in fact it is an absolutely natural occurrence and allows for the beautiful colorations of this wonderful stone to show.
There are many varieties of opal found around the world, the most valuable being that of black opal.

4. Interesting Facts:

Boulder Opal is the national gemstone of Australia, as it produces the largest percentage of the world’s supply, 97%.

5. Care and Storing:

Boulder opal is highly durable, therefore care and storing is made relatively easy; Cleaning however must be done with caution, and is best to take place with warm water and a soft cloth, though soaking the stone is not recommended.

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Bloodstone

Other Names: Heliotrope
Origin of Name: Due to nodules of bright red jasper resembling blood
Meaning of the Stone: Traditional birthstone of pisces
Classification: semi-precious
Family: Mineral-Chalcedony, Quartz
Region: Australia, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Russia, Indies
Color: green,dark green, almost black, with specs of red
Transparency: Opaque
Fracture: conchoidal, granular
Hardness (Gravity): 6.5-7( 2.58-2.64)
Crystal System: Trigonal
Similar Minerals: jasper, Carnelian, Agate, Chrysoprase

1. Legend and History:

The origin of the bloodstone’s name is basically due to the resemblance of the red nodules it carries, to that of blood stains; Also known as a heliotrope however, which derives from the Ancient Greek ηλιοτρόπιο, which means to turn the sun, due to the fact that this mineral had a specific way in reflecting light.
In reference to healing characteristics, the bloodstone is thought to be an excellent blood cleanser and powerful healer; It is believed to posses magical properties and the ability to prevent evil and negativity. In addition the bloodstone cleanses ones energy and aura while also tones up the immune system. Furthermore this particular stone is said to set blood flow to normal and good levels, whilst in Ancient Egypt it was used to lower the size of tumors.
2. Origin in nature and use:

Bloodstone belongs to the mineral family, more specifically it is a silica mineral of the chalcedony variety; it’s physical properties are those of quartz. It is a dark green stone with red particles,although it also occurs in in various shades of green with red, brown or multicolored spots. It is not a particularly hard stone, and it also displays a rather low specific gravity. The bloodstone is found mainly in Australia, Brazil, China, the Czech republic, Russia and the Indies.

4. Interesting Facts:

A legend surrounding the bloodstone states that the colorations occurred from Christ’s blood being spilled on the green ground, thus coloring this stone and giving certain mystical attributes.

5. Care and Storing:

Care and storing of the bloodstone is relatively easy as it has a good hardness; It is best kept out of direct sunlight in order to keep it’s shine and beautiful colorations intact, while cleaning should take place with warm water and a soft cloth, taking care of the inclusions.

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Beryl

Other Names: Velurya, vaidurya
Origin of Name: Ancient Greek βυρρηλος,
Meaning of the Stone: The blue-green color of the sea
Classification: precious
Family: Silicate mineral
Region: USA,Russia, Australia,Brazil, Czech Republic, Norway, France
Color: green, blue, pink, yellow, gold, colorless, pink
Transparency: Transparent to opaque
Fracture: Conchoidal
Hardness (Gravity): 7.5-8( 2.76 avg.)
Crystal System: Hexagonal
Similar Minerals: Bazzite, Bixbite

1. Legend and History:

Beryl received its name from the Ancient Greek word beryllos, which meant the blue green color of a water stone in the sea; however, etymologically the word may have also derived from the latin berillus, or Hindu languages with the name veruliya, velurya, vilar, which means to become pale, as in it’s clear form as a mineral beryl is transparent and colorless.

2. Origin in nature and use:

Beryl is a very popular mineral which occurs in a diversity of colors and varieties in the gemstone field.The size of such hexagonal crystals also varies, as they can be found in very small deposits, or even several meters high. The most rare of varieties of beryl are the Terminated Crystals. Pure Beryl is in fat colorless, a large amount of impurities however cause the aforementioned large variety of colors, these are Aquamarine, a sky-blue to green variety, Emerald, a green gem variety, Golden Beryl, Goshenite, Green Beryl, Heliodor, Morganite, Precious Beryl and Red Beryl.
The deep green emerald variety is one of the most prized and valuable of the Beryl family.

3. Interesting Facts:

The latin word berillus is the reason for the word brilliance in English, as it was abbreviated to brill, producing the Italian word brillare which means “shine”.

4. Care and Storing:

Beryl is relatively hard in its consistency, however, different treatment is used for different varieties , and as any precious gemstone, it must be cleaned with a soft cloth and warm water, and stored in a soft pouch or presentation box, away from other stones.

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Azotic Topaz

Other Names:
Origin of Name: Azotic Topaz is a high-tech creation of enhanced Topaz meaning fire in the Sanskrit language
Meaning of the Stone: Birthstone of November
Classification: semi-precious
Family: Quartz
Region: USA, Mexico, Australia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Pakistan
Color: May be enhanced with all colors
Transparency: Transparent to transulcet
Fracture: conchoidal
Hardness (Gravity): 8(3.49-3.57)
Crystal System: Orthohombric
Similar Minerals:

1. Legend and History:

Legends and History do not evolve much around the stone of Azotic Topaz, due to the fact that it is a creation of high-tech laboratories; Topaz however on it’s own does indeed have certain beliefs and legends attached to it’s history. In Ancient Egypt it was believed that the golden color of Topaz was colored from the Sun God Ra, thus it was thought to become a very powerful amulet that protected the wearer against harm.
Furthermore, topaz is said to be a stone which brings happiness, generosity, and good health; it is traditionally known as a love stone and luck stone, as it leads it’s wearer to achievement of his goals. In reference to psychology, Topaz is said to help it’s wearer reach it’s inner self and explore his inner wealth, thus llowing for a feeling of confidence and philanthropy.

2. Origin in nature and use:

Azotic Topaz, as we have mentioned, is a creation of man, an enhancement of the raw basic material of Topaz. AzoticTM is the main laboratory which enhances and creates Azotic Topaz, thus not much information is disclosed in reference to it’s creation. The cut and polished topaz is coated with a highly thin titanic film which acts as a coloring agent.

3. Interesting Facts:

Azotic topaz is considered to be a stone of love, it has been used in many covers, and stories, of romantic novels.

4. Care and Storing:

Azotic Topaz is a relatively hard stone, thus no extra care is needed in reference to storing, although it would be best to store it away from other stones of less hardness so it does not damage them, but also itself. It has no special sensitivity to chemicals thus may be cleaned by any means, but still acting with care as this stone still remains a topaz crystal despite technological enhancements.

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Aventurine

Other Names: Adventurine, Aventurine Quartz
Origin of Name: Italian “avventura”
Meaning of the Stone: Literal translation of name means “by chance”
Classification: semi-precious
Family: Quartz
Region: Italy, Brazil, China, Indies,Russia, Tibet, Nepal
Color: Green, blue, red, brown, peach
Transparency: semi-translucent to opaque
Fracture: conchoidal
Hardness (Gravity): 7(2.64-2.70)
Crystal System: Trigonal
Similar Minerals:

1. Legend and History:

Aventurine received it’s name from the Venetian glass workers in the 18th century; While the workers were preparing molten glass for it’s usual usage, an accident caused some copper fillings to fall into the batch thus producing glass which had a certain sparkle to it. Given that this creation was literally by chance, Italians chose to name the stone Aventurine, deriving from the phrase “per avventura” which means “by chance”.
Aventurine is believed to be the “positive stone of prosperity”, as it has a powerful connection with the Kingdom of Deva, and is often used an energy gridding in homes, protecting from geopassive stress. Aventurine is also said to clear smog and protect it’s wearer from environmental pollution.
With reference to healing attributes, Aventurine is believed to be good for the thymus gland, connective tissue and nervous system. It balances arterial pressure and enhances the metabolism, whilst also lowering cholesterol and acting as a precaution to arteriosclerosis and heart disease.Used as an elixir, Aventurine also heals dermic problems. It is best used while holding tight or applying to the area which needs to be healed.

2. Origin in nature and use:

Aventurine is a variety of quartz, containing small inclusions of minerals which tend to give it the sparkling effect known as aventurescence. It is composed of two gem minerals, those of quartz, and plagioclase feldspar, both of which have a high reflective index and add to the sparkling effect of the stone. Colorations of the stone depend on the minerals which are included in each stone, for instance, Mica inclusions allow for a yellow or silver shine, hematite and goethite allow for a red or gray shade, while chrome-green fuchsite mica allow for the green shade.

3. Interesting Facts:

Aventurine is used as a gift on the 8th anniversary of ones marriage.

4. Care and Storing:

Aventurine is best stored in dark places, as the translucent variety especially, is prone to losing it’s color in sunlight. It is a stone best cleaned, despite it’s relative hardness, with a soft cloth and warm water.

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Aquamarine

Other Names: blue-green beryl
Origin of Name: The name originates from the Roman Aqua meaning water and Marine meaning sea
Meaning of the Stone: Water of the Sea, the stone of the scorpio zodiac
Classification:Precious
Family: Silicate mineral/Beryl mineral, of the emerald family
Region: Europe, USA, Russia, Brazil, Indies, Zimbabwe, Afghanistan,Pakistan
Color: Blue (pure aquamarine) green, yellow, red, white
Transparency: transparent or opaque
Fracture: Conchoidal
Hardness (Gravity): 7.5-8( 2.76 avg.)
Crystal System: Hexagonal
Similar Minerals:

1. Legend and History:

The Aquamarine was frequently used in the Roman Empire and Middle Ages; The Romans would quite often incorporate the stone into their jewelry and believe that specific carvings of the stone, such as in the shape of a frog, would help reconcile enemies and make them into friends, in addition, both Romans and Greeks, believed that wearing an aquamarine would ensure a safe journey across the seas, due to its unity as a stone, with the colors of the sea.
Aquamarine is said to be the stone of courage; It eliminates stress and calms the mind, whilst also harmonizing one with the environment and mitigating bad external factors. In ancient times it was believed to be a stone which fought against the powers of darkness and brought serenity from the spirits of the light. Most sailors and seamen would carry an Aquamarine stone close to them in order to have a prosperous journey and be protected by its mystical powers.
In addition this beautiful stone is said to help those whom wear it get through difficult situations and take a stance in their lives; it brings out ones positive aura and aligns the chakra.
As all precious stones, the aquamarine is said to have certain healing powers also, such as uses against sore throats, swollen glans, thyroid problems, growth, the eyes, teeth and stomach.

2. Origin in nature and use:

Aquamarine, literally meaning “water of the sea”, is a beryllium aluminum cyclosilicate mineral, which varies in its shape and size, but is most commonly known to be a hexagonal crystal. As it is a variety of beryl it therefore belongs to the emerald family, thus often used as a stone of outstanding beauty due to its main color.

3. Interesting Facts:

In the Middle Ages, the aquamarine was cut into crystal balls, as it was thought to posses mystical properties and the ability to renew love in one’s life; Dr. John Dee also used a crystal ball created from aquamarine to predict which would be the best time for coronation for Queen Elizabeth I.
The Aquamarine stone is thought to bring out its benefits when one holds it tight, or places it in the correct area, depending on the desired use; Rings and amulets are very popular with the aquamarine too, especially on persons whom gain it’s attributes from the zodiac signs, i.e the scorpio sign.

4. Care and Storing:

As aquamarine stones are in the middle of the Mohs scale, they are fairly durable, but still must be treated with care as any precious stone. The typical shallow cuts which are used in order to enhance their clarity and emphasize their color deem them in need of frequent cleaning with a soft cloth in order for their appearance to remain at its best.

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